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With the passage of time the shape of the face changes from an inverted triangle broadest at the top to a triangle narrow at the top and broader at the base. The following are the causes of ageing:

1. We lose fat from our face, in other words, we lose volume; so that the youthful smooth convex contours are replaced by concave contours.

2. The elevator muscles that hold the tissues up become weaker and the depressor muscles become stronger. So together with the effect of gravity, facial features sag and move ‘South’. The jaw line weakens and the corners of the mouth droop.

3. From the age of thirty, we lose one per cent of facial collagen every year. Together with the loss of elastin fibres and facial fat the ‘upholstery’ for the face becomes thinner.The time for cell renewal increases with age. As teenagers, the surface layer of cells is replaced on weekly basis whilst in our sixties, this process can take up to six weeks. So the surface is made up of older cells with accumulation of dead skin cells.

4. Deeper inside the face, the facial bony skeleton shrinks and thins with age. Eye and nose sockets enlarge so that eyes appear more deeply set and the tip of the nose droops. The contour of the lower jaw line diminishes, as bone is lost.

5. Older skin shows the accumulative effects of sun damage and life style factors such as smoking, dehydration, poor diet and stress.

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